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Lyme Persistence: Adapted List of 293 Peer Reviewed Articles/Studies

This list is an in-progress adaptation (see notes below) of the amazing list below, from this change.org post regarding a petition for a Congressional investigation of CDC/IDSA/ALDF, which also states the following (including the link to the original 273-item, study-only list as a document):

We have studies proving persistent infection after antibiotic treatment for micedogsponiesmonkeys, cowsiris biopsy, and ligamentous tissue but if you perform a simple Yahoo search for the following statement, “There is no convincing scientific evidence that chronic Lyme exists” you will find the top search results are connected to “elements of academic medicine” involved in the denial of the late stage Lyme epidemic.

Persistent Lyme infection: 273 Peer-Reviewed Studies (http://home.comcast.net/~runagain/Persistence%20of%20Lyme%20Disease.doc)

Compiled by: John D. Scott, Research Division, April 2013, Lyme Disease Association of Ontario

Persistence of Lyme Disease ~ ADAPTED LIST

A. Daenzer, Invisiblylymemontana.com

293 Articles, Updated 1/30/2015

***Click the link above for a pdf of his original list (273 studies).

The list below (Invisiblylymemontana.com, LYME SCIENCE tab, under Persistence/Chronic Lyme (https://invisiblylymemontana.com/lyme-science/lyme-persistencechronic-lyme/persistence-list-of-273-more-studies/)) includes additional studies and will include peer reviewed articles that may constitute reviews or similar types of articles that contribute to the body of knowledge on the topic.  Non-peer-reviewed items of value will also be posted on other Lyme Science pages on this blog, so view additional tabs here as well.  Links are slowly being added and some notes may be added as well.

This list speaks to late stages of Lyme Disease infection, Chronic Lyme Disease, and persistent Lyme Disease (including, but not limited to, persistence beyond treatment, because untreated long term Lyme cases are currently lost in the scuffle when Chronic Lyme Disease is debated).

***Links to articles (BLUE TEXT), if/where present were added by me and may or may not work or lead to more than abstracts (as far as free access); (abs) indicates abstract only, or only the abstract is free

***New articles (RED TEXT), added by me, otherwise the ‘finder’ is credited. Please not that:

  1. There is no guarantee that there won’t be accidental duplications;
  2. ADDING SOURCES CHANGES THE NUMBERING OF THE ORIGINAL LIST, which was not entirely alphabetized, which may also lead to duplicates;
  3. Citations are created in as efficient a manner as possible, meaning that formatting may not be consistent throughout the list.

The following references for persistence of Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) are listed alphabetically and chronologically:  (SEE ABOVE FOR NOTES ON ADAPTATIONS ~ LINKS AND ADDITIONAL STUDIES)

Please see additional notes and resources at bottom of page.

  1. Aalto A, Sjowall J, Davidsson L, Forsberg P, Smedby O. Brain magnetic resonance imaging does not contribute to the diagnosis of chronic neuroborreliosis. Acta Radiol 2007; 48: 755-762. [white matter hyperintensities or basal ganglia lesions]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17729007&ordinalpos=2&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
  2. Abele DC and Anders KH. The many faces and phases of borreliosis. J Am Acad Dermotol 1990; 23:401-410. [chronic Lyme borreliosis].
  3. Aberer E and Klade H. Cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Infection 1991; 19: 284-286. [chronic Lyme borreliosis].
  4. Aberer E, Breier F, Stanek G, and Schmidt B.  Success and failure in the treatment of acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans skin rash. Infection 1996; 24: 85-87.
  5. Aberer E, Kersten A, Klade H, Poitschek C, Jurecka W. Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi in the skin. Am J Dermatopathol 1996; 18(6): 571-519.
  6. Aberer E, Koszik F, and Silberer M. Why is chronic Lyme disease chronic? Clinical Infectious Diseases 1997;25(suppl 1):S64-70  >>from Lyme Disease Eugene Oregon, Sharon L.<<  (group files)
  7. Akin E, McHugh Gl, Flavell RA, Fikrig E, Steere AC. The immunoglobulin (IgG) antibody response to OspA and OspB correlates with severe and prolonged Lyme arthritis and the IgG response to P35 with mild and brief arthritis. Infect Immun 1999; 67: 173-181.     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC96293/
  8. Albert S, Schulze J, Riegel H, Brade V. Lyme arthritis in a 12-year-old patient after a latency period of 5 years. Infection 1999; 27(4-5): 286-288.
  9. Al-Robaiy S, Dihazi H, Kacza J, et al. Metamorphosis of Borrelia burgdorferi organisms―RNA, lipid and protein composition in context with the spirochete’s shape. J Basic Microbiol 2010, 50 Suppl 1, S5-17.
  10. Amini B, Geller MD, Mathew M, Gerard P. MRI features of Lyme arthritis of the hips. Pediatr Radiol. 2007 Aug 18; [Epub ahead of print] Nov;37(11):1163-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17704909&ordinalpos=4&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
  11. Appel MJG, Allan S, Jacobson RH, Lauderdale TL, Chang YF, Shin SJ, Thomford JW, Todhunter RJ, and Summers BA. Experimental Lyme disease in dogs produces arthritis and persistent infection. J Inf Dis 1993; 167: 651-664.
  12. Åsbrink E, Hovmark A. Successful cultivation of spirochetes from skin lesions of patients with erythema chronicum migrans, Afzelius and acrodermatis chronica atrophicans. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Sect B 1985; 93: 161-163.
  13. Åsbrink E, Hovmark A, and Olsson I. Clinical manifestations of acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans in 50 Swedish patients. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A 1986; 26: 253-261. [chronic Lyme borreliosis].
  14. Asch ES, Bujak DI, Weiss M, Peterson MGE, and Weinstein A. Lyme Disease: an infectious and postinfectious syndrome. J Rheumatol 1994; 21 (3): 451-461.
  15. Bankhead T and Chaconas G. The role of VlsE antigenic variation in the Lyme disease spirochete: persistence through a mechanism that differs from other pathogens. Molecular Microbiology 2007; 65: 1547-1558.
  16. Barthold SW, Persing DH, Armstrong AL, and Peeples RA. Kinetics of Borrelia burgdorferi dissemination and evolution of disease following intradermal inoculation of mice. Am J Pathol 1991; 139: 263-273. [in mice]
  17. Barthold SW, deSouza MS, Janotka JL, Smith AL, and Persing DH. Chronic Lyme borreliosis in laboratory mouse. Am J Pathol 1993; 143: 951-971. [in mice]
  18. Barthold S. Lyme Borreliosis. Chapter 14, In Persistent Bacterial Infections. Edited by J.P. Nataro, M.J. Blaser, and S. Cunningham-Rundles, pp 281-304. ASM Press, Washington, C.
  19. Barthold SW, Hodzic E, Imai DM, Feng S, Yang X, and Luft BJ. Ineffectiveness of tigecycline against persistent Borrelia burgdorferi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2010; 54(2): 643-651. [Persistence is listed for many reservoir-competent hosts: mice, rats, Peromyscus leucopus, hamsters, gerbils, rabbits, dogs, nonhuman primates, and humans]
  20. Battafarano DF, Combs JA, Enzenauer RJ, Fitzpatrick JE. Chronic septic arthritis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Clin Orthop 1993; 297: 238-241. [Patients with chronic septic Lyme arthritis of the knee for seven years, despite multiple antibiotic trials and synovectomies. Bb documented in synovium and synovial fluid.]
  21. Bayer ME, Zhang L, Bayer MH. Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in the urine of treated patients with chronic Lyme disease symptoms. A PCR study of 97 cases. Infection 1996; 24: 347-353. [97 patients who had been treated with antibiotics for extended periods of time and had symptoms of chronic Lyme were PCR-positive.]
  22. Begon E. [Lyme arthritis, Lyme carditis and other presentations potentially associated to Lyme disease.] Med Mal Infect. 2007 July – August;37(7-8):422-434.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17698309&ordinalpos=12&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
  23. Benjamin J and J Luft. Chronic Lyme disease; an evolving syndrome. 9th Annual International Scientific Conference on Lyme Disease & Other Tick-Borne Disorders. 1996.
  24. Berglund J, Stjernberg L, Ornstein K, Tykesson-Joelsson K, Walter H. 5-y follow-up study of patients with neuroborreliosis. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 2002; 34(6): 421-425.
  25. Bloom BJ, Wyckoff PM, Meissner HC, and Steere AC. Neurocognitive abnormalities in children after classic manifestations of Lyme disease. Pediatric Infect. Dis. J. 1998; 17(3): 189-196.
  26. Borgermans L, Goderis G, Vandevoorde J, and Devroey DRelevance of Chronic Lyme Disease to Family Medicine as a Complex Multidimensional Chronic Disease Construct: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Family Medicine. Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 138016, 10 pages  >> Posted by Sharon L. In Lyme Disease Eugene Oregon<<  http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/138016
  27. Bradley JF, Johnson RC, Goodman JL.  The persistence of spirochetal nucleic acids in active Lyme arthritis. Ann Intern Med 1994; 120: 487.
  28. Bransfield R, Brand S, and Sherr V. Treatment of patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease. N Engl Med 2001; 345: 1424-5.
  29. Breier F, Khanakah G, Stanek G, Aberer E, Schmidt B, and Tappeiner G.  Isolation and polymerase chain reaction typing of Borrelia afzelii from a skin lesion in a seronegative patient with generalized ulcerating bullous lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Br J Dermatol 2001; 144: 387-392. [Borrelia afzelii, ulcerating lichen sclerosus et atrophicus]. [Despite treatment with four courses of ceftriaxone, “[s’pirochetes were isolated from skin cultures obtained from enlarging LSA lesion…[S]erology …was repeatedly negative.]
  30. Bockenstedt LK, J Mao, E Hodzic, SW Barthold, and D Fish. Detection of attenuated, noninfectious spirochetes in Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mice after antibiotic treatment. J Infect Dis 2002; 186: 1430-1437. [in mice]
  31. Brorson O and Brorson S-H. Transformation of cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi to normal mobile spirochetes. Infection. 1997; 25: 240-246. [change in physical characteristics; change of spirochetes to other pleomorphic forms, i.e., cell wall deficient forms, namely cysts.]
  32. Brorson O and Brorson S. In vitro conversion of Borrelia burgdorferi to cystic forms in spinal fluid, and transformation to mobile spirochetes by incubation in BSK-H medium. Infection. 1998; 26: 144-150. [change in physical characteristics; change of spirochetes to other pleomorphic forms, i.e., cell wall deficient forms, namely cysts.]
  33. Brorson O and Brorson S-H. An in vitro study of the susceptibility of mobile and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi to tinidazole. International Microbiol 2004; 7: 139-142.
  34. Brown JP, Zachary JF, Teuscher C, Weis JJ, and Wooten M. Dual role of interleukin-10 in murine Lyme disease: regulation of arthritis severity and host defense. Infect Immun 1999; 67: 5142-5150. [suppression of harmful immune responses: defense stratagem of burgdorferi]
  35. Burrascano J.  Failure of aggressive antibiotic therapy to protect the placenta from invasion by burgdorferi in a pregnant patient with Lyme borreliosis.  6th Annual International Science Conference on Lyme Disease and other Tick-borne Diseases.1993.
  36. Cabello FC, Godfrey HP, and Newman SA. Hidden in plain sight: Borrelia burgdorferi and the extracellular matrix. Trends in Microbiology 2007; 15: 350-354. [sequestration]
  37. Cadavid D, O’Neill T, Schaefer H, and Pachner AR. Localization of Borrelia burgdorferi in the nervous system and organs in a nonhuman primate model of Lyme disease. Lab Invest 2000; 80: 1043-1054.
  38. Cadavid D, Y Bai, E Hodzic, K Narayan, SW Barthold, and Pachner AR. Cardiac involvement in non-human primates infected with the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Lab Invest 2004; 84: 1439-1450. [in monkeys]
  39. Cameron D, Gaito A, Harris N et al. Evidence-based guidelines for the management of Lyme disease. Expert Rev Anti-Infect. Ther 2004; 2 (Suppl. 1), S1-S13.
  40. Cameron D. Results from Lyme disease treatment trial. Columbia University/LDA Conference, Lyme & Other Tick-Borne Diseases: Emerging Tick-Borne Diseases. October 28, 2005; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
  41. Cameron DJ. Generalizability in two clinic trials of Lyme disease. Perspectives and Innovation 2006; 3(12). [http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1742-5573-3-12].
  42. Cameron D. Severity of Lyme disease with persistent symptoms. Insights from a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Minerva Med 2008; 99: 489-496.
  43. Cameron DJ. Insufficient evidence to deny antibiotic treatment to chronic Lyme disease patients. Med Hypotheses (2009), doi:10.1016i/j.mehy.2009.01.017
  44. Cameron DJ. Proof that Lyme disease exists. 2010. [http://www.hindawi.com/60587146.html].
  45. Cameron DJ. Proof that chronic Lyme disease exists. Interdisciplinary Perspect Infect Dis 2010. doi:10.1155/2010/876450.
  46. Cimmino MA, Azzolini A, Tobia F, Pesce CM. Spirochetes in the spleen of a patient with chronic Lyme disease. Am J Clin Pathol 1989; 91(1): 95-97. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2910019 [post-treatment persistence shown through hisology/spleen per Strickner & Johnson, 2011]
  47. Chary-Valckenaere I, Jaulhac B, Champigneulle J, Piement Y, Mainard D, and Pourel J. Ultrastructural demonstration of intracellular localization of Borrelia burgdorferi in Lyme arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 1998; 37: 468-470.
  48. Chmielewski T, Tylewlska-Wierzhanowska S. Inhibition of fibroblast apoptosis by Borrelia afzelii, Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella henselae. Poll Microbiol 2011; 60(3); 269-272.
  49. Clarke AE, Esdaile JM, Bloch DA, Lacaille D, Danoff, and Fries JF. A Canadian study of the total medical costs for patients with systemic lupus erythema and the predictors of costs. Arthrit. Rheum. 1993; 36(11): 1548-1593.
  50. Cleveland CP, Dennler PS, Duray PH.  Recurrence of Lyme disease presenting as a chest wall mass:   Borrelia burgdorferi was present despite five months of IV ceftriaxone 2 g, and three months of oral cefixime 400 mg BID. The presence of Borrelia burgdorferi confirmed by biopsy and culture.  Poster presentation at V Lyme Disease Foundation International Scientific Conference. Stamford, CT, April 10-11, 1992.
  51. Cleveland CP, and Dennler S. Case history: recurrence of Lyme disease as a chest wall mass. Abstract presented at the 1993 LDF International Conference on Lyme Disease.
  52. Coyle P. Lyme Disease. Mosby Year Book, pp. 235, 1993. St Louis, [seclusion into immune privileged sites: defense strategem of B. burgdorferi]
  53. Dattwyler RJ, Volkman DJ, Luft BJ, Halperin JJ, Thomas J, and Golightly MG. Seronegative Lyme disease. Dissociation of specific T- and B-lymphocyte response to Borrelia burgdorferi. N Engl J Med 1988; 319(22): 1441-1446.
  54. Dejmková H, D Hulinska, D Tegzová, K Pavelka, J Gatterová, and P Vavřik. Seronegative Lyme arthritis caused by Borrelia garinii. Clin Rheumatol 2002; 21:330-334.
  55. DeLong AK, Blossom B, Maloney E, and Phillips SE. Antibiotic retreatment of Lyme disease in patients with persistent symptoms: A biostatistical review of randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials. Contemp Clin Trials 2012; epub ahead of print. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2012.08.009. [refutes Klempers {2001} conjecture that long-term antibiotics don’t work]
  56. de Koning J, et al. Demonstration of spirochetes in cardiac biopsies of patients with Lyme disease.  J. Infect. Dis. 1989; 160: 150-153. [intracellar sanctuaries of Bb]
  57. Demaershalck I, Messaoud AB, de Kesel M, Hoyois B, Lobet Y, Hoet P, Bigaignon G, Bollen A, and Godfroid E.  Simultaneous presence of different Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in biological fluids of Lyme disease patients. J Clin Microbiol 1995: 33; 602-608.
  58. Diringer MN, Halperin JJ, and Dattwyler RJ. Lyme meningoencephalitis―report of a severe, penicillin resistant case. Arthritis Rheum 1987; 30: 705-708.
  59. Diterich I, Rauter C, Kirschning CJ, and Hartung T. Borrelia burgdorferi-induced tolerance as a model of persistence via immunosuppression. Infect Immun 2003; 71(7):3979-3987.
  60. Donta ST. Tetracycline therapy for chronic Lyme disease. Clin Inf Dis 1997; 25 (Suppl 1);S52-56.
  61. Donta ST. The existence of chronic Lyme disease. Curr Treat Op Infect Dis 2001; 3: 261-262.
  62. Donta ST. Late and chronic Lyme disease. Med Clin North Am 2002; 86: 341-349.
  63. Donta ST. Macrolide therapy of chronic Lyme disease. Med Sci Monit 2003; 9: 136-142.
  64. Dorward DW, Fischer ER, and Brooks DM. Invasion and cytopathic killing of human lymphocytes by spirochetes causing Lyme disease. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1997. 25 Suppl 1: S2-8. [intracellular sanctuaries of Bb]
  65. Dunham-Ems SM, Caimano MJ, Pal U, et al. Live imaging reveals a biphasic mode of dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi within ticks. J. Clin Invest. 2009; 119: 3652-3665. [biofilms consist of a colony of spirochetes and cysts coated by a gelatinous, protective membrane]
  66. Duray PH. 1987. The surgical pathology of human Lyme disease. An enlarging picture. Am J Surg Pathol S1: 47-60. [Bb in brain]
  67. Duray PH and Steere AC. Clinical pathologic correlations of Lyme disease by stage. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1988; 539: 65-79.
  68. Duray PH, et al. Invasion of human tissue ex vivo by Borrelia burgdorferi.  J. Infect. Dis. 2005. 191(10): 1747-1754.
  69. Durovska J, Bazovska S, Ondrisova M, and Pancak J. 2010. Our experience with examination of antibodies against antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with suspected Lyme disease. Bratist. Lek. Listy 2010; 111(3): 153-155.
  70. Dvorakova J, and Celer V. [Pharmacological aspects of Lyme borreliosis] Seska Slov Farm. 2004(Jul); 53(4): 159-164.
  71. Ebel GD, Campbell EN, Goethert HK, Spielman A, and Telford SR. Enzootic transmission of deer tick virus in New England and Wisconsin Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2000; 63(1-2): 36-42.
  72. Ekdahl KN, Henningsson AJ, Sandholm K, Forsberg P, Ernerudh J, Ekerfelt C; Immunity in borreliosis with special emphasis on the role of complement. Adv Exp Med Biol 2007; 598: 198-213.
  73. Embers ME, SW Barthold, JT Borda, L Bowers, L Doyle, E Hodzic, MB Jacobs, NR Hasenkampf, DS Martin, S. Narasimhan, KM Phillippi-Falkenstein, JE Purcell, MS Ratterree, and MT Philipp. Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in rhesus macaques following antibiotic treatment of disseminated infection. PLoS ONE 7(1): e29914. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029914  (2012) [Bb was cultured from rhesus macques after antibiotic treatment and confirmed by PCR.] https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10204728889760113&l=1839eb69df
  74. Fallon BA, Schwartzberg M, Bransfield R, Zimmerman B, Scotti A, Weber CA, and Liebowitz MR. Late-stage neuropsychiatric Lyme borreliosis. Case reports. Psychosomatics 1995; 36: 295-300.
  75. Fallon BA, Das S, Plutchok JJ, Tager F, Liegner K, Van Heertum R. Functional brain imaging and neuropsychological testing in Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis 1997; 25 (suppl 1): S57-S63.
  76. Fallon BA, et al. Repeated antibiotic treatment in chronic Lyme disease. J Spir Tick Borne Dis. 1999; 6: 94-101.
  77. Fallon BA, Keilp J, Prohovnik I, Heertum RV, Mann JJ. Regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive deficits in chronic Lyme disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2003; 15: 326-332.
  78. Fallon BA, Keilp JG, Corbera KM, Petkova K, Britton CB, Dwyer E, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of repeated IV antibiotic therapy for Lyme encephalopathy. Neurology 2008; 70: 992-1003.
  79. Fallon BA, Lipkin RB,  Corbera KM, Yu S, Nobler MS, Keilp JG, Petkova E, Lisanby SH, Moeller JR, Slavov I, Van Heertum R, Mensh BD, and Sackeim HA. Regional cerebral blood flow and metabolic rate in persistent Lyme encephalopathy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2009; 66: 554-563.
  80. Feder Jr., HM and Whitaker DL. Misdiagnosis of erythema migrans. Am. J. Med. 1995; 99: 412-419.
  81. Fein L, and Tilton RC. Bone marrow as a source for Borrelia burgdorferi J Spir Tick-borne Dis 1997; 4: 58-60.
  82. Ferris J, et al. Lyme borreliosis. [letter] Lancet 1995; 345: 1436-1437.
  83. Fingerle V, Huppertz HI. [Stage-oriented treatment of Lyme borreliosis] MMW Fortschr Med. 2006 Jun 22;148(25):39-41. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16859159
  84. Fingerle V, Huppertz HI. [Lyme borreliosis in children. Epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical treatment, and therapy] Hautarzt. 2007 Jun;58(6):541-50, quiz 551-2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17729432&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
  85. Franz JK, O Fritze, M Rittig et al. Insights from a novel three-dimensional in vitro model of Lyme arthritis: standardized analysis of cellular and molecular interactions between Borrelia burgdorferi and synovial explants and fibroblasts. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44: 151-162.
  86. Fraser DD, Kong LI, and Miller FW. Molecular detection of persistent Borrelia burgdorferi in a man with dermatomyositis. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 1992; 10: 387-390.
  87. Frey M, Jaulhac B, Piemont Y, Marcellin L, Boohs PM, Vautravers P, Jesel M, Kuntz JL, Monteil H, and Sibilia J. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in muscle of patients with chronic myalgia related to Lyme disease. Am J Med 1988; 104: 591-594.
  88. Fried MD, Duray P. Gastrointestinal disease in children with persistent Lyme disease: spirochetes isolated form the G.I. tract. IX Lyme Disease Foundation International Scientific Conference, Boston, MA, April 19-20, 1996.
  89. Garcia-Monco JC, Benach JL. The pathogenesis of Lyme disease. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1989; 15: 711-726.
  90. Georgilis K, Peacocke M, and Klempner MS. Fibroblasts protect the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, from ceftriaxone in vitro. J Infect Dis 1992; 166: 440-444.
  91. Giambartolomei GH, Dennis VA, and Philipp MT. Borrelia burgdorferi stimulates the production of interleukin-10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from uninfected humans and rhesus monkeys. Infect Immun 1998; 66: 2691-2697. [suppression of harmful immune responses: defense stratagem of burgdorferi]
  92. Girschick HJ, Huppertz HI, Rüssmann H, Krenn V, and Karch H. Intracellular persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in human synovial cells. Rheumatol Int 1996; 16: 125-132. [intracellar sanctuaries of Bb]
  93. Goodman JL, Jurkovich P, Kodner C, and Johnson RC. Persistent cardiac and urinary tract infections with Borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally infected Syrian hamsters. J Clin Microbiol 1991; 29: 894-896.
  94. Grignolo MC, Buffrini L, Monteforte P, and Rovetta G. Reliability of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique in the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Minerva Med 2001; 92(1): 29-33. [Article in Italian]
  95. Gruntar I, et al. Conversion of Borrelia garinii cystic forms to motile spirochetes in vivo. APMIS 2001; 109(5): 383-388. [Persistence occurs when spirochetes change physical characteristics by converting to dormant cysts, and vis versa.]
  96. Grygorczuk S, Chmielewski T, Zajkowska J, Pancewicz S, Swierzbinska R, Kondrusik M, Tylewska-Wierzbanowska S, Hermanowska-Szpakowicz T. [Concentration of sFas and sFasL in the supernatant of PBMC culture from the patients with late Lyme borreliosis] Przegl Epidemiol. 2007;61(1):51-8. Polish. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17702439&ordinalpos=8&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
  97. Halperin JJ,, Luft BJ, Anand AK, Roque CT, Alvarez O, Volkman DJ, Dattwyler RJ. Lyme neuroborreliosis: central nervous system manifestations. Neurology 1989; 39: 753-759. [hyperintensities persist after treatment]
  98. Halperin JJ. Prolonged Lyme disease treatment: enough is enough. Neurology 2008; 70(13): 986-987.
  99. Harvey WT and Salvato P. ‘Lyme disease’: ancient engine of an unrecognized borreliosis pandemic? Med Hypotheses 2003; 60: 742-759.
  100. Hassett AL, Radvanski DC, Buyske S, Savage SV, and Sigal LH. Psychiatric comorbidity and psychological factor in patients with “chronic Lyme disease.” Am. J. Med. 2009; 122(9): 843-850.
  101. Hassler D, Riedel K, Zorn J and Preac-Mursic V. Pulsed high-dose cefotaxime therapy in refractory Lyme borreliosis (letter). Lancet 1991; 338: 193.
  102. Häupl T, Hahn G, Rittig M, Krause A, Schoerner C, Schonherr U, Kalden JR, and Burmester GR. Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ligamentous tissue from a patient with chronic Lyme borreliosis. Arthritis Rheum 1993; 36(11): 1621-1626. [Repeated antibiotic treatment necessary to stop the progession of disease but did not completely eliminate Bb from all sites of infection. Bb cultured from ligament sample; intracellar sanctuaries for Bb]
  103. Henneberg JP, and Neubert U.  Borrelia burgdorferi group: in vitro antibiotic sensitivity. Orv Hetil 2002; 143: 1195-1198.
  104. Hilton E, Tramontano A, DeVoti J, and Sood SK. Temporal study of immunoglobulin M seroreactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients treated for Lyme borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol 1997; 35(3): 774-776.
  105. Hodzic E, Feng S, and Barthold SW. Stability of Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C under immune selection pressure. J Infect Dis 2000; 181: 750-753.
  106. Hodzic E, Feng S, Holden K, Freet KJ, and Barthold SW. Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi following antibiotic treatment in mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008; 52: 1728-1736. [in mice: following antibiotic treatment; mice remained infected with infectious spirochetes.] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18316520
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  227. Preac Mursic V, Wanner G, Reinhardt S, Wilske B, Busch U, Marget W.  Formation and cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi spheroplast-L-form variants.  Infection 1996; 24: 218-226.
  228. Preac Mursic V, Marget W, Busch U, Rigler DP, Hagl S.  Kill kinetics of Borrelia burgdorferi and bacterial findings in relation to the treatment of Lyme borreliosis.  Infection 1996; 24(1): 9-16. [Bb was isolated by culture in five patients, four of whom had previously tested antibody-negative.]
  229. Priem S, Burmester GR, Kamradt T, Wolbart K, Rittig MG, and Krause A.  Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi by polymerase chain reaction in synovial membrane, but not in synovial fluid from patients with persisting Lyme arthritis after antibiotic therapy.  Ann Rheum Dis 1998; 57(2): 118-121. [After antibiotic treatment, synovial membrane still demonstrates spirochetes.][Although PCR was negative in synovial fluid and urine, PCR confirmed Bb in synovial membrane of four previously treated patients with Lyme arthritis; intracellar sanctuaries of Bb]
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  234. Rohácová H, Hancil J, Hulinská D, Mailer H, Havlik J. Ceftriaxone in the treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Infection. 1996 (Jan-Feb); 24(1): 88-90.
  235. Roelcke U, Barnett W, Wilder-Smith E, Sigmund D, and Hacke W.  Untreated neuroborreliosis: Bannwarth syndrome evolving into acute schizophrenia-like psychosis.  J Neurol 1992; 239: 129-131.
  236. Ruzic-Sablijic E, Strle F, and Cimperman J.  The Ixodes ricinus tick as a vector of Borrelia burgdorferi in Slovenia.  Eur J Epidemiol 1993; 9: 396-400.
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  243. Schmidli J, Hunziker T, Moesli P, and Schaad UB.  Cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi from joint fluid three months after treatment of facial palsy due to Lyme borreliosis. J Inf Dis 1988; 158(4): 905-906.  [Bb was cultured from joint fluid after treatment.]
  244. Schwann TG, Piesman J, Golde WT, Dolan MC, Ros PA. Induction of an outer surface protein on Borrelia burgdorferi during tick feeding. Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1995; 92: 2909-2913. [change in physical characteristics by altering immunogenicity]
  245. Seiler KP, and Weis JJ. Immunity to Lyme disease: protection, pathology and persistence. Curr Opin Immunol 1996; 8: 503-509.
  246. Shadick NA, Phillips CB, Logigian EL, Steere AC, Kaplan RF, Berardi VP, et al. The long-term clinical outcomes of Lyme disease. A population-based retrospective cohort study. Ann Int Med 1994; 121: 560-567.
  247. Sherr VT. “Bell’s palsy of the gut” and other GI manifestations of Lyme and associated disease. Practical Gastroenterology. April 2006.
  248. Silverman S, Dukes EM, Johnston SS, Brandenburg NA, Sadosky A, and Huse DM. The economic burden of fibromyalgia: comparative analysis rheumatoid arthritis. Current Medical Research and Opinion 2009; 25(4) 829-840.
  249. Singh SK and HJ Girschick. Molecular survival strategies of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Lancet Infect Dis 2004; 4: 575-583. [ burgdorferi survives in brachytophic tissue (ligament, tendon), fibroblasts, synovial cells, endothelial cell {linings of blood and heart vessels, and lymph vessels)}, deep invaginations of cell membranes, myocyctes, joints, eyes, and bones.]
  250. Skogman BH, Croner S, Nordwall M, Eknefelt M, Ernerudh J, and Forsberg P. Lyme neuroborreliosis in children: a prospective study of clinical features, prognosis, and outcome. Pediatic Infect. Dis. J. 2008; 27(12): 1089-1094.
  251. Stanek G, Klein J, Bittner R, and Glogar D. Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from the myocardium of a patient with long standing cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 1990; 322: 249-252.
  252. Steere AC, Bernardi VP, Weeks KE,, Logigan EL, Ackermann R. Evaluation of the intrathecal antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi as a diagnostic test for Lyme neuroborreliosis. J. Infect. Dis. 1990(June); 161(6): 1203-1209.
  253. Steere AC, Taylor E, McHugh GL, and Logigian EL. The overdiagnosis of Lyme disease. J. Med. Ass. 1993 269(14): 1812-1816.
  254. Steere AC, Levin RE, Molloy PJ, Kalis RA, Abraham JH, Liu NY, and Schmid CH.  Treatment of Lyme arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37: 878-888.
  255. Stein SL, Solvason HB, Biggart E, and Spiegel D.  A 25-year-old woman with hallucinations, hypersexuality, nightmares, and a rash.  Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153: 545-551.
  256. Straubinger RK, Straubinger AF, Jacobson RH, Chang Y, Summers BA, Erb HN, and Appel MJG.  Two lessons from the canine model of Lyme disease: migration of Borrelia burgdorgferi in tissues and persistence after antibiotic treatment. J Spir Tick-Borne Dis 1997; 4: 24-31. [In dogs: 30-day treatment diminished but failed to eliminate persistent infection in dogs. Antibody titers fell, but after antibiotic treatment was discontinued antibody levels began to rise again, presumably in response to proliferation of the surviving pool of spirochetes.]
  257. Straubinger RK, Summers BA, Chang YF, and Appel MJG. Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally infected dogs after antibiotic treatment.  J Clin Microbiol 1997; 35: 111-116.
  258. Straubinger RK. PCR-based quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi organisms in canine tissues over a 500-day postinfection period. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38: 2191-2199. [All 8 infected dogs previously treated with 30-day antibiotics were PCR positive from tissue samples after necrosis; 25 tissue samples per dog were used.]
  259. Straubinger RK, Straubinger AF, Summers BA, and Jacobson RH.  Status of Borrelia burgdorferi infection after antibiotic treatment and the effects of corticosteroids: an experimental study.  J Inf Dis 2000; 181: 1069-1081.
  260. Straubinger RK. Lyme borreliosis in dogs in recent advances in canine infectious diseases. Edited by L.E. Carmichael. International Veterinary Information Services. 2000.
  261. Stricker RB, Winger EE. Decrease CD57 lymphocyte subset in patients with chronic Lyme disease. Immonology Letters. 2001. 76: 43-48.
  262. Stricker RB, Burrascano JJ, and Winger EE.  Long-term decrease in the CD57 lymphocyte subset in a patient with chronic Lyme disease.  Ann Agric Environ Med 2002; 9: 111-113.
  263. Stricker RB, Lautin A, and Burrascano JJ. Lyme disease: point/counterpoint. Expert Rev Anti-Infect Ther 2005: 3: 155-165. http://m.cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/45/2/149.full
  264. Stricker RB and Johnson L. Persistent Borrelia burgdorferi infection after treatment with antibiotics and anti-tumor necrosis factor-a. J Infect Dis 2008; 197: 1352-1353.
  265. Stricker RB, Green CL, Savely VR, Chamallas SN, and Johnson L. Benefit of intravenous antibiotic therapy in patients referred for treatment of neurologic Lyme disease. Int J Gen Med 2011; 4: 639-646. [refutes Klempers {2001} conjecture that long-term antibiotics don’t work]  ***Long-term antibiotics***
  266. Stricker RB, Johnson L.  Lyme disease: the next decade. Infect. Drug Resist. 2011; 4: 1-9. Epub 2011. Jan 7. [biofilms consist of a colony of spirochetes and cysts coated by a gelatinous, protective membrane]
  267. Strle F, Preac-Mursic V, Cimperman J, Ruzic E, Maraspin V, and Jereb M.  Azithromycin versus doxycycline for treatment of eythema migrans: clinical and microbiological findings. Infection 1993; 21(2): 83-88.
  268. Strle F, Cheng Y, Cimperman J, Maraspin V, Lotric-Furlan S, Nelson JA, Picken MM, Ruzic-Sabljic E, and Picken R.  Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in resolved erythema migrans lesions.  Clin Inf Dis 1995; 23: 380-389.
  269. Strle F, Maraspin V, Lotric-Furlan, Ruzic-Sabljic E, and Cimperman J. Azithromycin and doxycycline for treatment of Borrelia culture-positive erythema migrans.  Infection 1996; 24: 64-68. [Skin-positive despite repeated antibiotic treatments.]
  270. Summers BA, Straubinger AF, Jacobson RH, Chang YF, Appel MJG, and Straubinger RK. Histopathological studies of experimental Lyme disease in the dog. J Comparative Pathol 2005; 133: 1-13.
  271. Sung SY, McDowell JV, Carlyon JA, and Marconi RT. Mutation and recombination in the upstream homology box-flanked ospE-related genes of the Lyme disease spirochetes result in the development of new antigenic variants during infection. Infect Immun 2000; 68; 1319-1327.
  272. Valesová M, et al. Detection of Borrelia in the synovial tissue from a patient with Lyme borreliosis by electron microscopy.  J. Rheumatol. 1989;16(11): 1502-1505. [intracellar sanctuaries of Bb]
  273. Valesová H, Mailer J, Havlik J, Hulínská, D, Hercogová. Long-term results in patients with Lyme arthritis following treatment with ceftriaxone. Infection. 1996 (Jan-Feb); 24(1): 98-102.
  274. Vartiovaara I. Living with Lyme.  Lancet 1995; 345: 842-844.
  275. Vázquez M, Sparrow SS, and Shapiro ED. Long-term neuropsychologic and health outcomes of children with facial nerve palsy attributable to Lyme disease. Pediatrics 2003; 112(2): e93-e97.
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  277. Walberg P, Granlund H, Nyman D, Panelius J, and Seppälä I.  Treatment of late Lyme borreliosis. J Infection 1994; 29: 255-261.
  278. Waniek C, Prohovnik I, Kaufman MA, and Dwork AJ.  Rapid progressive frontal-type dementia associated with Lyme disease.  J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1995; 7: 345-347. ( burgdorferi detected at autopsy).
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  284. Xu Q, Mcshan K, and Liang FT. Modification of Borrelia burgdorferi to overproduce OspA or VlsE alters its infectious behaviour. Microbiology 2008; 154: 3420-3429.
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  286. Young D, Hussell T, and Dougan G. Chronic bacterial infections: living with unwanted guests. Nat Immunol 2002 Nov; 3(11): 1026-1032.
  287. Yrjänäinen H, Hytönen J, Söderström KO, Oksi J, Hartiala K, Viljanen MK. Persistent joint swelling and borrelia-specific antibodies in Borrelia garinii-infected mice after eradication of vegetative spirochetes with antibiotic treatment. Micr Infect 2006; 8: 2044-2051. [persistence if Bb in mice]
  288. Yrjänäinen H. Borrelia burgdorferi evades the effects of ceftriaxone treatment in mouse model. Medica Odontologica 2009  [thesis]
  289. Yrjänäinen H, Hytönen J, Hartiala P, Oksi J, Viljanen MK. APMIS 2010;118(9): 665-673. [Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in joints and tissue adjacent to the joint is the niche of persisting burgdorferi in ceftriaxone-treated mice.]
  290. Zajkowska J1, Grygorczuk S, Kondrusik M, Pancewicz S, Hermanowska-Szpakowicz T.  [New aspects of pathogenesis of Lyme borreliosis]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2006;60 Suppl 1:167-70.  [Article in Polish]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16909797
  291. Zajkowska J, Czupryna P, Kusmierczyk J, Ciemerych A, Ciemerych M, Kondrusik M, Pancewicz S, Grygorczuk S, Hermanowska-Szpakowicz T. [Clinical forms of neuroborreliosis–the analysis of patients diagnosed in department of infectious diseases and neuroinfection medical academy in Bialystok between 2000-2005] Przegl Epidemiol. 2007;61(1):59-65. Polish. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17702440
  292. Zhang JR, Hardham JM, Barbour AG, and Norris SJ. Antigenic variation in Lyme disease Borreliae by promiscuous recombination of VMP-like sequence cassettes. Cell 1997; 89: 275-285. [antigenic variation: a defense stratagem of burgdorferi]
  293. Ziska MH, Donta ST, and Demarest FC. Physician preferences in the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease in the United States.  Infection 1996; 24: 182-186.

Original List (273 Studies) Compiled by: John D. Scott, Research Division                        April 2013, Lyme Disease Association of Ontario

http://home.comcast.net/~runagain/Persistence%20of%20Lyme%20Disease.doc

Adapted List in progress: A. Daenzer, Invisiblylymemontana.com, 293 Articles, Updated 1/30/2015

https://invisiblylymemontana.com/lyme-science/lyme-persistencechronic-lyme/persistence-list-of-273-more-studies/

See top of page for adaptation notes.

Additional Resources:

Lyme Center of Martha’s Vineyard  (Blog, lists, services, research links)

http://www.mvlymecenter.org/category/studies/

European Concerted Action On Lyme Borreliosis, PUBLICATIONS:  July to September 2007

http://meduni09.edis.at/eucalb/cms_15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=160:2007-july-september&catid=68:lyme-borreliosis&Itemid=124

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